Definitions and sources
Corporate tax rates in %
Source: Deloitte 2020
Yearly labour cost in Euro for a mechanical engineer. The yearly labour cost includes both salary and social contributions.
Source: fDi Intelligence based on Willis Towers Watson Global Remuneration Planning Report 2018/19, iMercer and national statistics
Yearly cost in Euro for a combination of 50 employees at a regional HQ, including senior management, finance, HR, sales etc., as well as utilities.
Source: fDi Benchmark 2020
Added value (thousand Euro) per employee in manufacturing.
Source: Eurostat 2019
R&D expenditure as % of GDP.
Source: Euromonitor 2018
Population with tertiary education, % of 25-34 year olds
Source: OECD 2018
Global Innovation Index, 1-100 (best): Detailed metrics about the innovation performance of 126 countries. Its 80 indicators explore a broad vision of innovation, including political environment, education, infrastructure and business sophistication.
Source: Global Innovation Index, Cornell University, INSEAD, World Intellectual Property Organization 2019
Average annual change in GDP 2000-2019 in %
Average annual inflation rate 2000-2019 in %
Economies are ranked 0-100 (best) on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.
Source: World Bank 2020
Digital Competitiveness Index , 0-100 (best): The ranking provides a measure of a country’s ability to adopt and explore digital technologies leading to transformation in business models, and society in general.
Source: IMD World Competitiveness Center 2019
Logistics Performance Index, 1-5 (best): The index is based on a worldwide survey of operators on the ground providing feedback on the logistics "friendliness" of the countries in which they operate and those with which they trade. Feedback from operators is supplemented with quantitative data on the performance of key components of the logistics chain in the country of work.
Source: World Bank 2018
Electricity prices in Euro/kWh for non-household consumers at consumption levels 20 000 - 70 000 MWh. The prices excludes VAT and other recoverable taxes and levies.
Source: Eurostat 2019
Share in % of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption.
Source: Eurostat 2018
Sustainable Development Goal Index, 0-100 (best): The SDG Index assess where each country stands with regard to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, signifying a country’s position between the worst (0) and best (100) outcomes.
Source: Bertelsmann Stiftung, Sustainable Development Solutions Network 2018